Latitude :
1 22 48 S Logitude : 104 19 48
Altitude :
0 to 20 metres
Area :
162.700 ha Wetlands: 162.700 ha
Status : National park
Legislation : SK Menhut No. 285/Kpts-II/92 (Taman Nasional), 1991. (RAMSAR Site)
Tenure : Government of Indonesia
Province :  
  Site Description  
  Berbak National Park forms part of the vast alluvial plain of East Sumatra, which occupies approximately one quarter of the island, and is one of Indonesia's largest swamp forest reserves. The region is almost entirely flat, being dissected by a number of levee-banked, meandering rivers that drain in a northeasterly direction toward the coast. Along the coast and lower sections of the rivers, extensive beach ridges and intertidal mudflats occur. The area contains 60,000 ha of freshwater swamp forest and 110,000 ha of undisturbed peatswamp forest. Its eastern boundary is bordered by five villages, some muddy coast and a small fringe of mangrove forest (1,500 ha). The southern border is the Sungai Benu and the site is bisected by the river Air Hitam Laut. The rivers are edged with Nypa fruticans, then Pandanus tectorius and, further inland, riverine forest dominated by Mammea sp. The maximum coastal tidal range is 2 - 2.5 metres decreasing to 1 metre a further 10 km upstream. The forest is inundated for a large part of the year. The rivers are up to 20 m deep and contain acid peatwater. In the dry season brackish water penetrates up to 10 km inland. The two major rivers of the reserve, both have their origin outside the reserve and drain over extensive peat deposits resulting in low pH and staining by suspended and dissolved organic material. The reserve includes several important sites for waterbirds, the most important one at the sandy beach near the mouth of the river Cemara. At least 24 water bird species have been sighted, including the Asian Dowitcher and Nordmann's Greenshank. At least 34 species of freshwater fish and brackish water fish are known from the rivers. Principal vegetation: Peatswamp forest, more than 40m high. Freshwater swamp, 50m high with emergents of up to 70m. Riverine forest: up to 50m high (with many palms).  
  Site Location  
  Taman Nasional Berbak is located on the east coast this site begins approximately 10 km inland from the Berhala Strait, extending down the coast to Sungai Benu. The eastern boundary was revised in 1985 to exclude the coastal settlements that extend from Sungai Bemu in the south to Sungai Remau in the north. The city of Jambi lies approximately 50 km to the west and reserve headquarters are located at Nipa Panjang, 10 km to the northwest. Access is difficult and time-consuming due to poor infrastructure. The entrance to the park at Desa Air Hitam Laut can be reached in approximately five hours by motor boat from the reserve headquarters, although travel time may double during the wet season.  
  Special Memmo  
  The avifauna of Berbak is very rich. At least 24 waterbird species have been sighted, including the Asian Dowitcher and Nordmann's Greenshank. The Total number of tree species in Berbak is as high as 150. A total of 23 palm species have been found in  
  List of Birds (345 species)  
Species Red Data Book Cites
Accipiter badius App II
Accipiter soloensis App II
Accipiter trivirgatus App II
Accipiter virgatus App II
Aceros corrugatus Vulnerable
Acridotheres javanicus
Acridotheres tristis
Acrocephalus arundinaceus
Actitis hypoleucos
Aegithina tiphia
Aethopyga siparaja
Alcedo atthis
Alcedo euryzona Vulnerable
Alcedo meninting
Amaurornis phoenicurus
Anas gibberifrons
Anas querquedula
Anhinga melanogaster Lower Risk
Anorrhinus galeritus
Anthracoceros albirostris App II
Anthracoceros convexus App II
Anthracoceros coronatus App II
Anthracoceros malayanus Lower Risk App II
Anthreptes malacensis
Anthreptes rhodolaema
Anthreptes singalensis
Aplonis panayensis
Apus affinis
Apus pacificus
Arachnothera affinis
Arachnothera chrysogenys
Arachnothera crassirostris
Arachnothera flavigaster
Arachnothera longirostra
Arachnothera robusta
Ardea cinerea
Ardea purpurea
Ardea sumatrana Lower Risk
Ardeola speciosa
Ardeola striata
Arenaria interpres
Argusianus argus App II
Artamus leucorhynchus
Artamus leucorynchus
Aviceda jerdoni Lower Risk App II
Aviceda leuphotes App II
Berenicornis comatus
Blythipicus rubiginosus
Bubo sumatranus App II
Bubulcus ibis
Buceros bicornis App I
Buceros rhinoceros App II
Buceros vigil Insufficiently Know App I
Buteo buteo App II
Butorides striatus
Cacomantis merulinus
Cacomantis sepulcralis
Cairina scutulata Endengered App I
Calidris alba
Calidris ferruginea
Calidris ruficollis
Calidris tenuirostris
Calorhamphus fuliginosus
Caprimulgus affinis
Caprimulgus macrurus
Casmerodius albus
Celeus brachyurus
Centropus bengalensis
Centropus sinensis
Ceyx erithacus
Ceyx rufidorsus
Chaetura leucopygialis
Chalcophaps indica
Charadrius alexandrinus
Charadrius dubius
Charadrius leschenaultii
Charadrius mongolus
Charadrius peronii Lower Risk
Chlidonias hybridus
Chlidonias leucoptera
Chlidonias leucopterus
Chloropsis cochinchinensis
Chloropsis cyanopogon
Chloropsis sonnerati
Chrysococcyx xanthorhynchus
Chrysocolaptes lucidus
Chrysocolaptes validus
Ciconia episcopus
Ciconia stormi Endengered
Cisticola juncidis
Clamator coromandus
Collocalia esculenta
Collocalia fuciphaga
Collocalia maxima
Columba argentina Vulnerable
Copsychus malabaricus
Copsychus pyrropygus
Copsychus saularis
Coracina striata
Corvus enca
Corvus macrorhynchos
Corydon sumatranus
Coturnix chinensis
Criniger phaeocephalus
Cuculus fugax
Cuculus micropterus
Cymbirhynchus macrorhynchos
Cymbirhynchus macrorhynchus
Cyornis rufigastra
Cyornis turcosa Lower Risk
Cypsiurus balasiensis
Dendrocopos moluccensis
Dendrocygna javanica
Dendronanthus indicus
Dicaeum cruentatum
Dicaeum trigonostigma
Dicaeum trochileum
Dicrurus aeneus
Dicrurus annectans
Dicrurus macrocercus
Dicrurus paradiseus
Dicrurus remifer
Dinopium javanense
Dryocopus javensis
Ducula aenea
Ducula badia
Ducula bicolor
Dupetor flavicollis
Egretta alba
Egretta eulophotes Endengered
Egretta garzetta
Egretta intermedia
Egretta sacra
Elanus caeruleus App II
Erithacus cyane
Eudynamys scolopacea
Eurostopodus temminckii
Eurylaimus javanicus
Eurylaimus ochromalus
Eurystomus orientalis
Falco moluccensis App II
Falco peregrinus App I
Falco severus App II
Ficedula westermanni
Ficedula zanthopygia
Fregata andrewsi Vulnerable App I
Fregata ariel
Fregata minor
Gallicrex cinerea
Gallinula chloropus
Gallirallus striatus
Gallus gallus
Garrulax leucolophus
Gelochelidon nilotica
Geopelia striata
Gerygone sulphurea
Glareola maldivarum
Gracula religiosa
Halcyon chloris
Halcyon concreta
Halcyon coromanda
Halcyon pileata
Halcyon smyrnensis
Haliaeetus leucogaster App II
Haliastur indus App II
Harpactes diardii
Harpactes duvaucelii
Hemicircus concretus
Hemiprocne comata
Hemiprocne longipennis
Hemipus hirundinaceus
Heteroscelus brevipes
Hirundapus cochinchinensis
Hirundapus giganteus
Hirundo rustica
Hirundo tahitica
Hydrophasianus chirurgus
Hypogramma hypogrammicum
Hypothymis azurea
Hypsipetes charlottae
Hypsipetes criniger
Ibis cinereus Vulnerable App I
Ichthyophaga ichthyaetus Lower Risk App II
Ictinaetus malayensis App II
Iole olivacea
Irena puella
Ixobrychus cinnamomeus
Ixobrychus sinensis
Ketupa ketupu App II
Lacedo pulchella
Lalage nigra
Lanius cristatus
Lanius schach
Lanius tigrinus
Larus ridibundus
Leptoptilos javanicus Vulnerable
Limicola falcinellus
Limnodromus semipalmatus Lower Risk
Limosa lapponica
Limosa limosa
Lonchura maja
Lonchura punctulata
Loriculus galgulus App II
Machaeramphus alcinus App II
Machaerhamphus alcinus App II
Macronous gularis
Macronous ptilosus
Macropygia unchall
Malacopteron affine
Malacopteron albogulare Lower Risk
Malacopteron cinereum
Malacopteron magnum
Megalaima australis
Megalaima chrysopogon
Megalaima haemacephala
Megalaima lineata
Megalaima mystacophanos
Megalaima rafflesii Lower Risk
Meiglyptes tukki
Melanoperdix nigra Lower Risk
Merops philippinus
Merops viridis
Microhierax fringillarius App II
Micropternus brachyurus
Mulleripicus pulverulentus
Mycteria cinerea Vulnerable App I
Nectarinia calcostetha
Nectarinia jugularis
Nectarinia sperata
Ninox scutulata App II
Numenius arquata
Numenius madagascariensis Lower Risk
Numenius phaeopus
Nycticorax nycticorax
Oriolus chinensis
Oriolus xanthonotus
Oriolus xanthornus
Orthotomus atrogularis
Orthotomus ruficeps
Orthotomus sepium
Orthotomus sutorius
Otus bakkamoena App II
Otus rufescens App II
Pachycephala cinerea
Pandion haliaetus App II
Passer montanus
Pelargopsis capensis
Pellorneum capistratum
Pericrocotus cinnamomeus
Pericrocotus divaricatus
Pericrocotus flammeus
Pericrocotus igneus
Pernis ptilorhynchus App II
Phaenicophaeus chlorophaeus
Phaenicophaeus curvirostris
Phaenicophaeus javanicus
Phaenicophaeus sumatranus
Phalacrocorax niger
Philentoma pyrhopterum
Philentoma velatum
Picoides canicapillus
Picoides macei
Picoides moluccensis
Picumnus innominatus
Picus mentalis
Picus miniaceus
Picus puniceus
Pitta granatina
Platysmurus leucopterus Lower Risk
Plegadis falcinellus
Ploceus manyar
Ploceus philippinus
Pluvialis dominica
Pluvialis squatarola
Porphyrio porphyrio
Porzana cinerea
Porzana fusca
Porzana paykullii Lower Risk
Prinia familiaris
Prinia flaviventris
Prinia subflava
Prionochilus maculatus
Prionochilus percussus
Psittacula alexandri App II
Psittacula longicauda App II
Psittinus cyanurus Lower Risk App II
Pycnonotus atriceps
Pycnonotus aurigaster
Pycnonotus brunneus
Pycnonotus erythropthalmos
Pycnonotus eutilotus
Pycnonotus goiavier
Pycnonotus melanoleucos
Pycnonotus plumosus
Pycnonotus simplex
Pycnonotus zeylanicus Vulnerable
Rallina fasciata
Raphidura leucopygialis
Rhaphidura leucopygialis
Rhinomyias umbratilis
Rhinoplax vigil Insufficiently Know App I
Rhipidura albicollis
Rhipidura javanica
Rhipidura perlata
Rhyticeros corrugatus Vulnerable
Rhyticeros undulatus
Saxicola caprata
Seicercus grammiceps
Sitta frontalis
Spilornis cheela App II
Spizaetus alboniger App II
Spizaetus cirrhatus App II
Spizaetus nanus Vulnerable App II
Stachyris erythroptera
Stachyris maculata
Stercorarius pomarinus
Sterna albifrons
Sterna anaethetus
Sterna bengalensis
Sterna bergii
Sterna caspia
Sterna dougallii
Sterna fuscata
Sterna hirundo
Sterna sumatrana
Streptopelia bitorquata
Streptopelia chinensis
Sturnus contra
Surniculus lugubris
Terpsiphone paradisi
Threskiornis melanocephalus Lower Risk
Treron curvirostra
Treron fulvicollis Lower Risk
Treron olax
Treron vernans
Trichastoma bicolor Lower Risk
Trichastoma malaccense
Trichastoma rostratum Lower Risk
Tricolestes criniger
Tringa glareola
Tringa nebularia
Tringa stagnatilis
Tringa totanus
Xenus cinereus
Zosterops palpebrosus
  List of Mammals (53 species)  
Species Red Data Book Cites
Aonyx cinerea Lower Risk App II
Arctictis binturong
Arctogalidia trivirgata Endengered
Callosciurus nigrovittatus
Callosciurus notatus
Callosciurus prevostii
Cervus unicolor
Crocidura fuliginosa
Cynocephalus variegatus
Dicerorhinus sumatrensis Critically Endengered App I
Echinosorex gymnurus
Emballonura monticola
Felis bengalensis App I
Felis viverrinus Lower Risk App II
Helarctos malayanus Deficient Data App I
Hemigalus derbyanus App II
Hylobates agilis Lower Risk App I
Hystrix brachyura Vulnerable
Lariscus insignis
Lutra lutra App I
Lutra sumatrana Vulnerable App II
Macaca fascicularis Lower Risk App II
Macaca nemestrina Vulnerable App II
Manis javanica Lower Risk App II
Martes flavigula Endengered App III
Muntiacus muntjak
Neofelis nebulosa Vulnerable App I
Neophocaena phocaenoides Deficient Data App II
Nycticebus coucang Vulnerable App II
Panthera tigris Endengered App I
Paradoxurus hermaphroditus Vulnerable
Petaurista petaurista
Petinomys setosus
Petinomys vordermanni
Presbytis femoralis Lower Risk App II
Presbytis melalophos App II
Prionodon linsang App II
Pteropus vampyrus App II
Ratufa affinis App II
Sundamys muelleri
Sundasciurus hippurus
Sundasciurus lowii
Sundasciurus tenuis
Sus barbatus Lower Risk
Sus scrofa
Symphalangus syndactylus Lower Risk App I
Tapirus indicus Vulnerable App I
Trachypithecus cristatus Lower Risk App II
Tragulus javanicus
Tragulus napu
Tupaia glis App II
Tupaia minor App II
Tursiops truncatus Deficient Data App II
  List of Fish (95 species)  
Species Red Data Book Cites
Anabas testudineus
Arius maculatus
Balantiocheilos melanopterus Endengered
Barbodes balleroides
Barbodes gonionotus
Barbodes schwanenfeldii
Belodontichthys dinema
Belontia hasselti
Betta fusca
Betta strohi
Boleophthalmus boddaerti
Ceratoglanis scleronema
Chaca bankanensis
Channa lucius
Channa micropeltes
Channa pleurophthalmus
Channa striata
Chitala lopis
Clarias batrachus
Clarias meladerma
Clarias nieuhofi
Clarias teysmanni
Cyclocheilichthys apogon
Dasyatis kuhlii
Dermogenys pusillus
Dermogenys sumatranus
Epalzeorhynchos kalopterus
Helostoma temminckii
Hemiarius stormii
Kryptopterus bicirrhis
Kryptopterus hexapterus
Kryptopterus limpok
Kryptopterus schilbeides
Labeo chrysophekadion
Lactarius lactarius
Leiocassis fuscus
Leiocassis poecilopterus
Leiocassis stenomus
Leptobarbus hoevenii
Lethrinus miniatus
Lobocheilos kajanensis
Luciocephalus pulcher
Macrognathus aculeatus
Macrognathus maculatus
Monopterus albus
Mystus bimaculatus
Mystus micracanthus
Mystus nemurus
Mystus nigriceps
Mystus wolffii
Mystus wyckii
Nibea semiluctuosa
Notopterus notopterus
Ompok bimaculatus
Ompok eugeneiatus
Ompok hypophthalmus
Osphronemus goramy
Osteochilus hasseltii
Osteochilus pentalineatus
Osteochilus spilurus
Oxyeleotris marmorata
Pangasius micronema
Pangasius nasutus
Pangasius polyuranodon
Parachela oxygastroides
Parambassis macrolepis
Periophthalmus chrysospilos
Polydactylus plebejus
Pristis cuspidatus
Pristolepis fasciata
Pristolepis grootii
Puntioplites bulu
Puntioplites waandersi
Puntius eugrammus
Puntius johorensis
Rasbora argyrotaenia
Rasbora bankanensis
Rasbora caudimaculata
Rasbora einthovenii
Rasbora kalochroma
Rasbora trilineata
Scatophagus argus
Scleropages formosus Endengered App. I
Sphaerichthys osphromenoides
Tetraodon nigroviridis
Tetraodon palembangensis
Thynnichthys polylepis
Thynnichthys thynnoides
Toxotes chatareus
Toxotes jaculator
Trichogaster leerii
Trichogaster pectoralis
Trichogaster trichopterus
Wallago leeri
Xenopterus naritus
  List of Crustaceans (1 species)  
Species Red Data Book Cites
Macrobrachium rosenbergii
  List of Mollusks (22 species)  
Species Red Data Book Cites
Achatina fulica
Anadara granosa
Architectona maxima
Cerithidea obtusa
Corbicula javanica
Loligo sp.
Murex trapa
Natica tigrina
Nerita albicilla
Paphia sp.
Patella sp.
Pecten sp.
Pila ampullacea
Pinna sp.
Polinices didyma
Pugilina cochlidium
Sepia sp.
Septaria porcellana
Sinum neritoideum
Thais carinifera
Thais javanica
Turbo bruneus
  List of Amphibians (8 species)  
Species Red Data Book Cites
Bufo asper
Bufo sp.
Bufo subasper
Bufo sumatranus
Cophixalus pipilans
Kaloula baleata
Rana cancrivora
Rana limnocharis
  List of Reptiles (44 species)  
Species Red Data Book Cites
Acrochordus javanicus
Agkistrodon rhodostoma
Ahaetulla prasina
Batagur baska App I
Bellia crassicollis App II
Boiga dendrophila
Bungarus fasciatus
Cerberus rhynchops
Chitra indica Critically Endengered
Chrysopelea paradisi
Chrysopelea pelias
Crocodylus porosus Vulnerable App II
Cyclemys amboinensis
Cyclemys dentata Lower Risk
Dendrelaphis pictus
Dendrophis pictus
Draco cornutus
Draco intermedius
Draco sp.
Draco volans
Elaphe radiata
Enhydris enhydris
Gekko monarchus
Hemidactylus frenatus
Homalopsis buccata
Mabuia rudis
Mabuya multifasciata
Naja naja App II
Oligodon purpurascens
Ophiophagus hannah App II
Orlitia borneensis
Pareas carinatus
Pelochelys bibroni
Ptyas korros
Python reticulatus App II
Tachydromus sexlineatus
Tomistoma schlegeli Deficient Data App I
Tomistoma schlegelii Deficient Data App I
Trimeresurus wagleri
Trionyx cartilagineus
Varanus rudicollis App II
Varanus salvator App II
Xenochrophis vittatus
Zaocys carinatus
  List of Vegetations (284 species)  
Species Red Data Book Cites
Acanthus ebracteatus
Acanthus ilicifolius
Acriopsis javanica
Aglaeonema simplex
Aglaia argentea
Aglaia dookoo
Aglaia odoratissima
Aglaia oligophylla
Agrosticia sp.
Alangium villosum
Allophyllus cobbe
Alocasia longiloba
Alseodaphne insignis
Alsomitra sp.
Alstonia pneumatophora
Anadendrum microstachyum
Antidesma montanum
Antidesma stipulare
Antrophyum callifolium
Aporusa microstachya
Aporusa sp.
Aquilaria filaria
Aquilaria malaccensis
Archidendron clypearia
Ardisia lurida
Ardisia sp.
Artocarpus elastica
Artocarpus kemando
Asplenium longissimum
Asplenium nidus
Avicennia alba
Avicennia intermedia
Avicennia officinalis
Baccaurea bracteata
Baccaurea kunstleri
Baccaurea sp.
Barringtonia acutangula
Barringtonia sp.
Blechnum indicum
Blumeodendron kurzii
Blumeodendron tokbrai
Brackenridgea palustris
Bridelia glauca
Bruguiera parviflora
Bulbophyllum sp.
Calamus aquatilis
Calamus caesius
Calamus corrugatus
Calamus exilis
Calamus javanensis
Calamus manan
Calamus scipionum
Calamus sp.
Calophyllum lowii
Calophyllum soulattri
Calophyllum sp.
Calophyllum venulosum
Campnosperma auriculata
Campnosperma auriculatum
Campnosperma coriaceum
Canarium asperum
Carallia brachiata
Caryota mitis
Caryota sp.
Casearia sp.
Casuarina equisetifolia
Cerbera odollam
Ceriops candolleana
Chilocarpus densiflorum
Chilocarpus sp.
Chisocheton divergens
Cissus rostrata
Clerodendrum sp.
Coccoceras borneense
Connarus monocarpus
Connarus semidecandrus
Cratoxylum sp.
Croton oblongus
Cryptocarya ferrea
Cyrtostachys lakka
Daemonorops geniculata
Daemonorops sp.
Dendrobium sp.
Dendrophthoe sp.
Dillenia excelsa
Diospyros areolata
Diospyros bantamensis
Diospyros buxifolia
Diospyros confertifolia
Diospyros lanceifolia
Diospyros sp.
Diplazium cordifolium
Dracontomelon dao
Drynaria quercifolia
Durio carinatus
Durio oxleyanus
Dyera costulata
Dysoxylum sp.
Eichhornia crassipes
Elaeocarpus glaber
Elaeocarpus littoralis
Elaeocarpus oxypyren
Elaeocarpus palembanicus
Embelia pergamacea
Endiandra sp.
Eugenia chloroleuca
Eugenia jambos
Eugenia pseudosubtilii
Eugenia pseudosubtilis
Eugenia punctulata
Eugenia sp.
Eugenia zippeliana
Euonymus javanicus
Evodea sp.
Excoecaria agallocha
Ficus annulata
Ficus globosa
Ficus microcarpa
Ficus recurva
Ficus sp.
Ficus sumatrana
Ficus sundaica
Ficus sundaicus
Flacourtia rukam
Flagellaria indica
Freycinetia sp.
Ganua motleyana
Garcinia parvifolia
Garcinia scortechinii
Gardenia tubifera
Globba campsophylla
Glochidion borneense
Gluta renghas
Gluta sp.
Gnetum sp.
Goniophlebium verrucosum
Goniothalmus malayanus
Gonystylus bancanus
Gonystylus confusus
Gonystylus velutinus
Gynotroches axillaris
Hanguana malayana
Hibiscus tiliaceus
Homalonema cordata
Horsfieldia sp.
Hoya diversifolia
Hypobathrum microcarpum
Hypolytrum nemorum
Ilex cymosa
Ixora blumei
Ixora fluminalis
Ixora junghuhnii
Jackia ornata
Johannesteijsmannia altifrons
Knema conferta
Knema curtisii
Knema laurina
Koompassia malaccensis
Korthalsia debilis
Korthalsia flagellaris
Korthalsia robusta
Korthalsia sp.
Labisia pumila
Labisia sp.
Lagerstroemia speciosa
Lecananthus erubescens
Lecananthus sp.
Leea indica
Lepidaria kingii
Licuala paludosa
Licuala sp.
Licuala valida
Lithocarpus sp.
Lithocarpus wenzigianus
Livistonia hasseltii
Livistonia rotundifolia
Lycopodium sp.
Lygodium flexuosum
Macaranga conifera
Macaranga sp.
Macaranga triloba
Madhuca sp.
Mallotus penangensis
Mammea sp.
Manga caesia
Manga quadrifolia
Manga sp.
Mangifera foetida
Mangifera quadrifida
Marumia muscosa
Mastixia pentandra
Mastixia trichotoma
Medinilla crassifolia
Melastoma affine
Melastoma malabathricum
Memecylon paniculatum
Mesua sp.
Museandopsis beccariana
Mussaendopsis beccariana
Myristica elliptica
Myristica iners
Myristica sp.
Nauclea maingayi
Neesia glabra
Nenga pumila
Neonauclea calycina
Neoscortechinia kingii
Nypa fruticans
Oncosperma horrida
Oncosperma horridum
Oncosperma tigillarium
Pachycentria constricta
Pandanus aurantiacus
Pandanus helicopus
Pandanus kamii
Pandanus sp.
Pandanus tectorius
Parartocarpus venenosus
Parastemon urophyllum
Parastemon urophyllus
Payena sp.
Pholidocarpus sp.
Pholidocarpus sumatranus
Phyllanthus sp.
Pinanga patula
Poikilospermum suaveolens
Polyalthia laterifolia
Polyalthia sumatrana
Polyalthya sp.
Polyosma integrifolia
Pometia pinnata
Psychotria viridiflora
Pternandra coerulescens
Pternandra galeata
Pternandra sp.
Ptychopyxis costata
Pyrrosia lanceolata
Quassia indica
Quercus sp.
Rhizophora mucronata
Ridelia sp.
Salacca conferta
Salacca sp.
Salacia macrophylla
Santiria griffithii
Santiria rubiginosa
Santiria sp.
Schefflera corona
Schefflera sp.
Schismatoglottis sp.
Scindapsus perakensis
Scleria sumatrana
Shorea platycarpa
Shorea sp.
Shorea teysmanniana
Shorea uliginosa
Sonneratia alba
Sonneratia caseolaris
Stemonurus secundiflorus
Stenochlaena palustris
Stercularia sp.
Sterculia sp.
Strombosia sp.
Susum anthelminticum
Symplocos cochinchinensis
Syzygium antisepticum
Syzygium cumini
Syzygium lineatum
Syzygium racemosum
Syzygium zeylanicum
Teijsmanniodendron hollrungii
Teijsmanniodendron pteropodus
Teijsmanniodendron sp.
Tetramerista glabra
Teysmanniodendron sp.
Thoracostachyum sumatrana
Uncaria sp.
Urophyllum arboretum
Uvaria littoralis
Vanda hookeriana
Xanthophyllum flavescens
Xerospermum sp.
Ziziphus calophylla
Zizyphus calophylla